It is ironical that Alauddin was murdered by Malik Kafur and Alauddin’s son and successor Sultan Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah was murdered by his long time sex slave Khusro Khan, ending the Khilji dynasty in 1320. He had not got much education but he was good at display of sword. Log in. [6] Once, while Alauddin and Mahru were together in a garden, Jalaluddin's daughter attacked Mahru out of jealousy. Only three maliks from Jalaluddin's time were spared: Malik Qutbuddin Alavi, Malik Nasiruddin Rana, Malik Amir Jamal Khalji. The Sultan Alauddin Khilji died under questionable circumstances in 1316 CE. [12], Meanwhile, Alauddin's younger brother Almas Beg (later Ulugh Khan), who was married to a daughter of Jalaluddin, assured the Sultan of Alauddin's loyalty. He also convinced Alauddin to order the killing of his brother-in-law Alp Khan, an influential noble who could rival Malik Kafur's power. Rajputs knew that Alauddin Khilji was drunk with lust and would do anything to acquire her, they made him believe that if he frees the King, he could have the Queen. [47] The Mongol invasion of 1303 was one of the most serious invasions of India, and prompted Alauddin to take several steps to prevent its repeat. The raids of his generals in Marwar led to their This, combined with their general grievances against Alauddin, led to resentment among Mongols who had settled in India after converting to Islam. When Khilji did that, the Rajput warriors sitting inside palanquin attacked his camp and freed their King. The invaders ransacked Delhi and its neighbourhoods, but ultimately decided to retreat after being unable to breach Siri. He belonged to the Turkic Khalji ancestry. [144], Ziauddin Barani, writing half-a-century after his death, mentions that Alauddin did not patronize the Muslim ulama, and that "his faith in Islam was firm like the faith of the illiterate and the ignorant". [9] In addition, the Sultan granted Alauddin's request to use the revenue surplus for hiring additional troops. Alauddin Khilji was the one ruler who made many reforms in the existing administration and improved the army to prevent any revolt against him. [102], Chroniclers such as Khusrau and Barani state that the prices were not allowed to increase during Alauddin's lifetime, even when the rainfall was scarce. Courts to the east of Quwwat ul-Islam mosque, in Qutb complex added by Khalji in 1300 CE. He sat on the throne of Delhi Sultanate in 1296 AD after killing his uncle Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji. It is fascinating to note how frequently Alauddin is mentioned in literary narratives produced by Rajput courts. [154] This policy of compromise with Hindus was greatly criticized by a small but vocal set of Muslim extremists, as apparent from Barani's writings. [93] He forced the rural chiefs to pay same taxes as the others, and banned them from imposing illegal taxes on the peasants. [103] The shopkeepers who violated the price control regulations or tried to circumvent them (such as, by using false weights) were given severe punishments. He also married another Hindu woman Kamaladevi, who was the ex-wife of Karna, the last Vaghela king of Gujarat. Despite lacking proper education during childhood, he grew up to become a powerful and excellent warrior. A section of Mongol leaders plotted to kill Alauddin, but the conspiracy was discovered by Alauddin's agents. [69], During the siege of Warangal, Malik Kafur had learned about the wealth of the Hoysala and Pandya kingdoms located further south. He also convinced Alauddin to order the killing of his brother-in-law Alp Khan, an influential noble who could rival Malik Kafur's power. Khalji was never forgiven for his cruelty to get the throne. After Nusrat Khan was killed during the siege, Alauddin personally took charge of the siege operations, and conquered the fort in July 1301. Many works have been surfaced on the life and history of Alauddin Khilji including several books, plays, and films. Alauddin played the significant role in suppressing this rebellion, and hence, was appointed the new Governor of Kara by Jalaluddin. He viewed their haughtiness and their direct and indirect resistance as the main difficulty affecting his reign. [26][27], In early 1299, Alauddin sent Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan to invade Gujarat, where the Vaghela king Karna offered a weak resistance. Multan was controlled by Jalaluddin's son Arkali, who harboured the fugitives from Delhi. Khusrau states in Khazainul Futuh that Alauddin had dispatched a 30,000 strong army under a Hindu officer Malik Naik, the Akhur-bek Maisarah, to repel the Mongols. Sikander is Old Persian for 'Alexander', a title popularized by Alexander. After he looted Devagiri, he again got married to the princess of Devagiri, Jhatyapali and had a son with her named Shihabuddin Omar who was also the successor of Khalji Dynasty. Sreenivasan notes that Khalji’s … Alauddin Khilji was born in Delhi in 1266 CE, lived his entire life in the Indian subcontinent, and ruled as sultan of Delhi from 1296 CE – 1316 CE. While sani is Arabic for to 'Second'. According to Isami, Alauddin banned alcohol, after a noble condemned him for merrymaking when his subjects were suffering from a famine. Last life of Alauddin was very painful and tragic. The purport of this extreme meekness and humility on his part... is to show the extreme submissiveness incumbent upon this race. According to some old stories, Alauddin invaded Chittoor to capture the queen of Rawal Ratan Singh/Ratnasimha’s (the King of Chittoor) Padmavati. is also mentioned to have made huge donations towards repairing Jain temples.[165][166]. During the last years of his life, Alauddin suffered from an illness, and became very distrustful of his officers. Alauddin died in January 1316. He brought the treasure looted in the Devagiri raid to Kara instead of surrendering it to Jalaluddin. Alauddin Khilji was known for assaulting states, just for their property and ladies. [155], Alauddin rarely listened to the advice of the orthodox ulama. anshu329 anshu329 03.05.2018 History Secondary School How did allauddin khilji died … [81] After facing the Mongol invasions and several rebellions, he implemented several reforms to be able to maintain a large army and to weaken those capable of organizing a revolt against him. Alaud-Dīn Khaljī (r. 1296–1316), born as Ali Gurshasp, was the emperor of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate in the Indian subcontinent. Malik Kafur was a slave captured during the Gujarat raid. [133] Historian Judith E. Walsh, scholar Nilanjan Sarkar and scholar Thomas Gugler also believe Alauddin and Kafur were lovers in a sexually intimate relationship. His reforms resulted in a better government, and the government was handled by himself. The conditions seem to have changed a year later. These temples included the ones at Bhilsa (1292), Devagiri (1295), Vijapur (1298–1310), Somnath (1299), Jhain (1301), Chidambaram (1311) and Madurai (1311). Death of Alauddin Khilji. Allegedly, he only trusted Kafur Malik whom he appointed as the Viceroy and had acquired most of the administrative powers. Assuming this is correct, Alauddin's birth can be dated to 1266–1267. [149] The masnavi Deval Devi—Khizr Khan by Amir Khusrau states that Gujarat was only annexed in the second invasion which took place seven years after the first one, implying the first was merely a plundering raid. The real name of Alauddin Khilji was Ali Gurshap. How did Alauddin Khilji die? [94] By suppressing these chiefs, Alauddin projected himself as the protector of the weaker section of the rural society. Allegedly, Alauddin Khilji was a bisexual, and in the last few years of his life, he fell deeply in love with Malik Kafur. Profession: Ruler (Sultan Of Delhi) Father: Shihabuddin Mas'ud. Ala-ud-din whose original name was Ali Gurshasp assumed the title of Abul Muzaffar Sultan Alaud-duniya-va-din Muhammad Shah Khalji. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी का इतिहास | Alauddin Khilji History In Hindi. On the contrary, Alauddin's Dipalpur governor Malik Tughluq regularly raided the Mongol territories located in present-day Afghanistan. [87], After some initial conspiracies and Hindu revolts in rural areas during the early period of his reign, he struck the root of the problem by introducing reforms that also aimed at ensuring support of his army and food supply to his capital. [24], In the winter of 1297, the Mongols led by a noyan of the Chagatai Khanate raided Punjab, advancing as far as Kasur. When did Alauddin Khilji died 2 See answers shivam1433 shivam1433 Answer: JAUNUARY 1316 . [58][59], Around 1308, Alauddin sent Malik Kafur to invade Devagiri, whose king Ramachandra had discontinued the tribute payments promised in 1296, and had granted asylum to the Vaghela king Karna at Baglana. [82] Barani also attributes Alauddin's revenue reforms to the Sultan's desire to subjugate the Hindus by "depriving them of that wealth and property which fosters rebellion". Meanwhile, he himself led another army to conquer Chittor, the capital of the Guhila kingdom ruled by Ratnasimha. In a 1305 document, Khusrau mentions that Alauddin treated the obedient Hindu zamindars (feudal landlords) kindly, and granted more favours to them than they had expected. Just like the Islamic prophet Muhammad's four Rashidun caliphs helped spread Islam, Alauddin believed that he too had four Khans (Ulugh, Nusrat, Zafar and Alp), with whose help he could establish a new religion. ", "Actor's actor Om Puri redefined idea of male lead", "Did You Know? Hope it will help you dude. [6] To finance his plan to dethrone Jalaluddin, Alauddin decided to raid the neighbouring Hindu kingdoms. [115] Kafur had Alauddin's eldest sons Khizr Khan and Shadi Khan blinded. [7], In 1291, Alauddin played an important role in crushing a revolt by the governor of Kara Malik Chajju. The story is hinged on a reflection seen by Khilji in the water, or mirror in some stories. Malik Kafur invaded Devagiri again in 1313, defeated him, and became the governor of Devagiri. Why did Alauddin Khilji introduce market regulation? According to the manuscripts and the poem written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, Rani Padmavati died in mass self-immolation (Jauhar) after the death of her husband in a battle. During the last years of his life, Alauddin suffered from an illness, and relied on Malik Kafur to handle the administration. His totalitarian rule marked the beginning of the imperialistic period of the sultanate and the rise to … Alauddin Khilji was known for assaulting states, just for their property and ladies. According to chronicler Ziauddin Barani, Malik Kafur conspired to murder Alauddin. According to the 16th-century historian Firishta, she warned Jalaluddin that Alauddin was planning to set up an independent kingdom in a remote part of the country. When he reached Siri, Ruknuddin led an army against him. [131] According to Barani, during the last four or five years of his life, Alauddin fell "deeply and madly in love" with Kafur, and handed over the administration to him. [118], The next day, Kafur appointed Alauddin's young son Shihabuddin as a puppet monarch. [147] Barani's claim that Alauddin thought of founding a religion has been repeated by several later chroniclers as well as later historians. Alaudin fixed the prices of the commodities according to the real value, which made people survive efficiently at a low salary. Of Turkic origin, the Khilji tribe had settled in what is now modern … [56], In 1306, another Mongol army sent by Duwa advanced up to the Ravi River, ransacking the territories along the way. [115], Alauddin died on the night of 4 January 1316. His predecessors had largely relied on the pre-existing administrative set-up. Alauddin conquered the kingdoms of Gujarat (raided in 1299 and annexed in 1304), Ranthambore (1301), Chittor (1303), Malwa (1305), Siwana (1308), and Jalore (1311). [164] He[who?] [92] Alauddin's demand for tax proportional to land area meant that the rich and powerful villages with more land had to pay more taxes. Later, to win the trust of Jalaluddin, he managed to suppress a revolt against the Sultan and got the position of the Governor of Kara in 1291, and then the governorship of Awadh. [84], Some of Alauddin's land reforms were continued by his successors, and formed a basis of the agrarian reforms introduced by the later rulers such as Sher Shah Suri and Akbar. In addition, many non-Muslims served in his army. अलाउद्दीन अपने चाच� But it worsened the position of Hindus during his rule. "[156], Alauddin believed "that the Hindu will never be submissive and obedient to the Musalman unless he is reduced to abject poverty." [86], The countryside and agricultural production during Alauddin's time was controlled by the village headmen, the traditional Hindu authorities. [141] He also started the construction of the Alai Minar, which was intended to be double to size of the Qutb Minar, but the project was abandoned, probably when he died. [139], Like his predecessors, Alauddin was a Sunni Muslim. The Delhi sultan died in 1316. [42] Alauddin managed to reach Delhi before the invaders, but did not have enough time to prepare for a strong defence. Allauddin Khalji There is Speculation about his death, but it is said that Allauddin Khalji was killed by his Prominent Eunuch Slave - Malik Kafur in the year 1316 What Did Allauddin Khalji do so He was killed by his entrusted slave? God Almighty Himself (in the Quran) commands their complete degradation in as much as these Hindus are the deadliest foes of the true prophet. However, his elder son Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah seized the power shortly after his death. [150] At Khambhat, it is said that the citizens were caught by surprise. It is believed that quite a lot of the historical memoirs were written solely for the purpose of projecting a powerful… [24], Meanwhile, Ala-ul Mulk, who was Alauddin's governor at Kara, came to Delhi with all the officers, elephants and wealth that Alauddin had left at Kara. [119] Towards the end of the night, Kafur brought the body of Alauddin from the Siri Place and had it buried in Alauddin's mausoleum (which had already been built before Alauddin's death). [128] Deval Devi was eventually brought to Delhi and lived in the royal palace with her mother. [161] There was no learned Digambracarya in North India during this period and Mahasena was persuaded by Jains to defend the faith. [100][101] In addition, Barani suggests that the Hindu traders indulged in profiteering, and Alauddin's market reforms resulted from the Sultan's desire to punish the Hindus. Alauddin was a nephew and a son-in-law of his predecessor Jalaluddin. [168], Mongol invasions and northern conquests, 1297–1306, Religion & relationships with other communities, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSatish_Chandra2007 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBanarsi_Prasad_Saksena1970 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFSatish_Chandra2014 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFS._Digby1980 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFRichard_M._Eaton2001 (, Rebellions against Alauddin Khalji § Measures for preventing rebellions, "Padmavati isn't history, so what's all the fuss about? Alauddin Khilji had become very insecure about his position during the last years of his life. Alauddin's forces, led by Malik Kafur, decisively defeated the Mongols. [110] Sometime later, Alauddin relented, and allowed distillation and drinking in private. Background. Describing a court held on 19 October 1312, Khusrau writes the ground had become saffron-coloured from the tilaks of the Hindu chiefs bowing before Alauddin. However, Alauddin detained them, and prevented them from communicating with the Sultan. Alauddin Khilji’s death On 4 January 1316 Alauddin died and his body was taken from Siri Palace to the mausoleum, which was earlier built. He states that such a submission on the part of the Hindus "has neither been seen before nor will be witnessed hereafter". According to the 16th/17th-century chronicler Haji-ud-Dabir, Alauddin was 34 years old when he started his march to Ranthambore (1300–1301). However, Amir Khusrau mentions a Hindu officer of his army despatched to repel the Mongols. 2. [127] According to the chronicler Firishta, sometime between 1306-7, Kamala Devi requested Alauddin to secure her daughter Deval Devi from the custody of her father, Raja Karan. [5], Alauddin married Jalaluddin's daughter, Malika-i-Jahan, long before the Khalji revolution of 1290. अलाउद्दीन खिलजी, खिलजी वंश के दुसरे शासक थे, जो एक बहुत शक्तिशाली और महत्वाकांक्षी राजा थे. When he had asked about the position of Hindus under an Islamic state, the qazi Mughis replied that the Hindu "should pay the taxes with meekness and humility coupled with the utmost respect and free from all reluctance. [162], Kharataragaccha Pattavali, completed in 1336–1337, details atrocities on Jains under his reign including destruction of a religious fair in 1313 while capturing Jabalipura (Jalor). He was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji, the Delhi Sultanate whose throne he usurped. [37], In the winter of 1302–1303, Alauddin dispatched an army to ransack the Kakatiya capital Warangal. He started concentrating all the power in the hands of his family and his slaves. In 1296, he attacked Devagiri and looted the King. In 1296, Alauddin raided Devagiri, and acquired loot to stage a successful revolt against Jalaluddin. He further states that Alauddin once thought of establishing a new religion. To pay salaries to his soldiers. [121], Alauddin's wives included Jalaluddin's daughter, who held the title Malika-i-Jahan, and Alp Khan's sister Mahru. The region beyond Lahore suffered from Mongol raids and Khokhar rebellions. Died: 19 July 1296 Kara, India: Spouse: Malika-i-Jahan: Issue: Khan-i-Khan (Mahmud) Arkali Khan Qadr Khan (later Sultan Ruknuddin Ibrahim) Malika-i-Jahan (wife of Alauddin Khalji) House: Khalji: Religion: Sunni Islam: Jalal-ud-din Khalji (r. 1290–1296; died 19 July 1296) was the founder and first Sultan of the Khalji dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1290 to 1320. [4], While instigating Alauddin to revolt against Jalaluddin, Malik Chajju's supporters emphasized that he needed a lot of money to raise a large army and stage a successful coup: Malik Chajju's revolt had failed for want of resources. The Jain poet Acharya Ramachandra Suri was also honored by him. Thanks for mark me as brainliest. Among the rulers of medieval India, Ala-ud-din occupies an honourable place both as a conqueror and an administrator. Over the next few years, Alauddin successfully fended off the Mongol invasions from the Chagatai Khanate, at Jaran-Manjur (1297–1298), Sivistan (1298), Kili (1299), Delhi (1303), and Amroha (1305). As per the historians, Alauddin’s father died when … He was the nephew and son-in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji, the Delhi Sultanate whose throne he usurped. Alauddin Khilji is known as a standout amongst the most fierce leaders of the Khilji administration, who rose the position of royalty by executing his father-in-law Sultan Jalaluddin, his sibling-in-laws, and their uncles. She became more dominant towards Alauddin. [99] However, Barani states that Alauddin wanted to reduce the prices so that low salaries were acceptable to his soldiers, and thus, to maintain a large army. As a result, Jalaluddin appointed him as the new governor of Kara in 1291. Alauddin Khilji was the second ruler and probably the most powerful monarch of the Khilji Dynasty. But he was annunciated as the Sultan of Delhi on 21 October 1296 when he reached Delhi. [97] He also levied taxes on residences (ghari) and grazing (chara'i), which were not sanctioned by the Islamic law. Alauddin gave each of them 30 to 50 manns of gold, and each of their soldiers 300 silver tankas (hammered coins). It is also said that Alauddin Khilji had a skin disease (leprosy) at the last moment due to which he began to suffer a lot, in the end his loyal Malik Kafur had liberated him at Alauddin's behest, Alauddin's tomb. Helped by Ramachandra of Devagiri, Kafur entered the Kakatiya territory in January 1310, ransacking towns and villages on his way to Warangal. He surrendered this looted treasure to Jalaluddin which helped him to earn Sultan’s trust. Alauddin obtained the governorship of Kara in 1291 after suppressing a revolt against Jalaluddin, and the governorship of Awadh in 1296 after a profitable raid on Bhilsa. [45][46] Under these difficult circumstances, Alauddin took shelter in a heavily guarded camp at the under-construction Siri Fort. Even wives and children of soldiers rebelling for greater war spoils were imprisoned. [153], He compromised with the Hindu chiefs who were willing to accept his suzerainty. Quick Info→ Caste: Sunni. In 1293, he raided Bhilsa, a wealthy town in the Paramara kingdom of Malwa, which had been weakened by multiple invasions. Khilji was the second Sultan of Delhi from Khilji dynasty, who ruled from 1296 to 1316 AD. When he was defeated, Rani did Johar and died, for her death was better than being abducted by Alauddin’s men. The autobiographical memoirs of Timur, who invaded Delhi in 1398, mention that the reservoir was a source of water for the city throughout the year. Join now. 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